Habit: Erythroxylum rotundifolium grows as a shrub or small tree to 7 meters in height. The leaves are arranged alternately, and are ovate to sub-orbicular, to 3 cm in length (usually smaller), with a rounded leaf apex and entire margin.
Erythroxylum rotundifolium is monoecious. The incomplete, imperfect, actinomorphic flowers emerge in groups (1-4 flowers) from leaf axils. The calyx has 5 unfused green sepals. The corolla has 5 whitish-green unfused petals with nectaries at their base. There are 10 stamens. In the staminate flowers there is no functional ovary. In carpellate flowers there are no functional stamens and a superior ovary with 1 locule. The fruit is a red drupe at maturity.
Habitat: Erythroxylum rotundifolium grows primarily as an understory species in Dry Broadleaf Evergreen Formation-Forests/Shrublands (coppice), Pine Woodlands, and near Fresh Water Wetlands.
Distribution: Erythroxylum rotundifolium occurs on all island groupings within the Lucayan Archipelago, as well as the Caribbean region and Central America.
Medicinal/Cultural/Economic usage: Erythroxylum rotundifolium is not known to be used medicinally in the Lucayan Archipelago.