Habit: Euphorbia vaginulata grows as a low small, to 1 m in height. The succulent, purple-copper-green leaves are arranged oppositely, linear, less than 1 cm in length with no real leaf margin and a rounded leaf apex. At the base of the petiole are short lived ciliate stipules. The vegetation produces a thick, milky sap.
When grown in cultivation the leaves can be as long as 3 cm.
The incomplete, imperfect, monoecious, actinomorphic, flowers are arranged in cyathia and occur in the axils of leaves. There are 5 dark red/black, elongate glands on the edge of the cyathia. There is no calyx or corolla. Staminate flowers are reduced to a single stamen. Carpellate flowers are reduced to a single superior carpel, each with 3 locules and numerous seeds. The fruit is a dark brown, glabrous capsule at maturity that splits along 3 suture lines.
Habitat: Euphorbia vaginulata grows in sandy areas and the edges of salt flats.
Distribution: Euphorbia vaginulata is endemic to the Lucayan Archipelago occurring in the central and southern island groupings (including the Turks and Caicos Islands).
Medicinal/Cultural/Economic usage: Euphorbia vaginulata is not known to be used medicinally in the Lucayan Archipelago.
All parts of the species are extremely toxic and should not be ingested!!