Habit: Zanthoxylum rhodoxylon grows as a shrub to small tree up to 7 meters in height. The base of older specimens has distinctive corky conical knobs and the stems have thorns. The evenly pinnate, compound leaves are arranged alternately and are up to 25 cm in length. The 3-9 leaflets are to 7 cm in length, obovate to oblong, with an obtuse or emarginate leaf apex and entire margin. The leaflets are dark green and shin and are aromatic when crushed.
Zanthoxylum rhodoxylon is dioecious. The incomplete, imperfect, actinomorphic flowers are arranged in open terminal panicles. The calyx has 3 unfused, green sepals. The corolla has 3 unfused, greenish white petals. Staminate flowers have 3 stamens and a non-functional ovary. Carpellate flowers have no stamens and 1 ovary each with1 locule. The fruit is a sessile follicle at maturity.
Habitat: Zanthoxylum rhodoxylon grows primarily as an understory shrub (occasional tree) in Dry Broadleaf Evergreen Formation – Forest/Shrubland and Pine Woodlands.
Distribution: Zanthoxylum rhodoxylon grows on Andros and Crooked Island, Cuba, and Hispaniola.
Medicinal/Cultural/Economic usage: Zanthoxylum rhodoxylon is not known to be used medicinally in the Lucayan Archipelago.